Washington, August —.

Hurrah for you, to be offered the Colonelcy of the regiment! I am glad, however, that you have no wish to take it. I shrink from any such responsibility for you.

Dr. Bacon came in last evening and we had a nice pleasant chat. His regiment, the 2nd Connecticut, goes home to-day to be mustered out. We saw them march down yesterday to give up their arms and were struck with their fine manly appearance and precision in marching. Dr. Bacon is anxious to come back to the army and hopes that one regiment at least may be formed of the three just returning, in which he may serve. He has left one of his patients at the new Columbian College Hospital and commended him to our care. We shall see him this afternoon and take him jelly, slippers, etc. The slippers are from a large boxful which Lenox Hodge has sent us, our commission. They are scarce at the hospitals and in great demand. Cousin M. Hodge writes of her happiness at hearing of your safety and welfare. Columbian College Hospital is just opened and only half organized, but already crowded. It will be nice, but now they have few comforts or conveniences, scarcely any sheets, no water, etc. One of G’s nurse friends is there working like a slave, as are the other five women nurses. We spent the morning there helping them, reading to the men, writing letters for them, etc.


St Louis Mo. August 5. 1861

My dear wife

I arrived here some time last night, and had a very comfortable rest on a good large bed in the Ladies Cabin till 6½ Oclock. On opening the mornings papers, I found General Fremont1 had returned to this city yesterday: so I was fortunate in being here, just right to meet him. I called at ½ past 7 and found him at Mrs. Brand’s house, a large new residence of hers on Cheandean Avenue. The General said he was glad to see me and told me all his difficulties. Besides the general fuss throughout Northern Missouri he is threatened with three armies in the South. Pillow is near Bird’s Point, Hardie is near Pilot Knob and McCulIough still further West.2 As a further vexation, he has but few troops, many of them without arms and no arms to give those who are being mustered into the service. He says they are diverting towards Washington all the troops and arms that he had coming this way. The General seemed excited and perplexed, and I confess things look a little squally.

He directed me to remain here in order to aid in procuring further organization and arms. I have therefore taken rooms here at the Everett House, on 4th Street, where I can have convenient intercourse with the Commanding General and arrange for more active duty. He thinks Birds Point is now safe enough but in order to act offensively against Pillow and others, he must have more force and will try to secure it by arming Home guards and drawing off the mustered Regiments. He told me when I met him, he had just ordered down the two regiments at Keokuk and the Cavelry regiment forming at Burlington.

I know their [illegible] ungainly appearance, and really feel sorry they have to come in such an unprepared condition. But we must try to get equipment and fix them up as soon as possible. While I am everywhere trying make excuses for our Government I confess it is humiliating to see how destitute we now are when the enemy is at our very doors.

William3 has a room adjoining mine. The weather is still very hot but probably no worse than you have it at Keokuk.

I hope you are making yourselves as comfortable as possible. I am trying to do so. I hope Sadie is relieved of her lingering head ache. If I stay here long I shall want some of you to come down and spend a few days with me. I have not had time to call on Henry yet. Hope to do so soon. William is well and trying to make himself useful. Kiss our dear daughters for Pa and give my love to I am

Affectionately yours
Saml R. Curtis

What I write about our troops and the enemy must not be published


1. John C. Fremont, explorer, political figure, and soldier, earned early fame as an explorer and as a politician in the Republican race for President in 1856. Appointed maj. gen. in command of the Dept. of the West, he arrived at his post July 25, 1861, and held the position about 100 days. Much criticism arose over his administration. See Nicolay & Hay, Abraham Lincoln, 4, 411-439.

2. Gideon Johnson Pillow, brig. gen. vols, Mexican War, raised to maj. gen. May 13. 1847, served the C. S. A. as brig. gen. 1861-1865; William J. Hardee, U. S. Military Academy, 1838, held the rank of It. coL in the regular cavalry at outbreak of war, resigned commission Jan. 31. 1861, and served as a It. gen. C. S. A. from 1861-1865; Benjamin McCullough, veteran of the Mexican War, with rank of maj. gen., served the C. S. A. as brig. gen until killed in the battle of Pea Ridge, March, 1862.

3. A son of Brig. Gen. Curtis


August 5th.—A heavy, heavy heart. Another missive from Jordan, querulous and fault-finding; things are all wrong—Beauregard’s Jordan had been crossed, not the stream “in Canaan’s fair and happy land, where our possessions lie.” They seem to feel that the war is over here, except the President and Mr. Barnwell; above all that foreboding friend of mine, Captain Ingraham. He thinks it hardly begun.

Another outburst from Jordan. Beauregard is not seconded properly. Hélas! To think that any mortal general (even though he had sprung up in a month or so from captain of artillery to general) could be so puffed up with vanity, so blinded by any false idea of his own consequence as to write, to intimate that man, or men, would sacrifice their country, injure themselves, ruin their families, to spite the aforesaid general! Conceit and self-assertion can never reach a higher point than that. And yet they give you to understand Mr. Davis does not like Beauregard. In point of fact they fancy he is jealous of him, and rather than Beauregard shall have a showing the President (who would be hanged at least if things go wrong) will cripple the army to spite Beauregard. Mr. Mallory says, “How we could laugh, but you see it is no laughing matter to have our fate in the hands of such self-sufficient, vain, army idiots.” So the amenities of life are spreading.

In the meantime we seem to be resting on our oars, debating in Congress, while the enterprising Yankees are quadrupling their army at their leisure. Every day some of our regiments march away from here. The town is crowded with soldiers. These new ones are fairly running in; fearing the war will be over before they get a sight of the fun. Every man from every little precinct wants a place in the picture.


August 5th. — The roads from the station are crowded with troops, coming from the North as fast as the railway can carry them. It is evident, as the war fever spreads, that such politicians as Mr. Crittenden, who resist the extreme violence of the Republican party, will be stricken down. The Confiscation Bill, for the emancipation of slaves and the absorption of property belonging to rebels, has, indeed, been boldly resisted in the House of Representatives; but it passed with some trifling amendments. The journals are still busy with the affair of Bull Run, and each seems anxious to eclipse the other in the absurdity of its statements. A Philadelphia journal, for instance, states to-day that the real cause of the disaster was not a desire to retreat, but a mania to advance. In its own words, “the only drawback was the impetuous feeling to go a-head and fight.” Because one officer is accused of drunkenness a great movement is on foot to prevent the army getting any drink at all.

General McClellan invited the newspaper correspondents in Washington to meet him to-day, and with their assent drew up a treaty of peace and amity, which is a curiosity in its way. In the first place, the editors are to abstain from printing anything which can give aid or comfort to the enemy, and their correspondents are to observe equal caution; in return for which complaisance, Government is to be asked to give the press opportunities for obtaining and transmitting intelligence suitable for publication, particularly touching engagements with the enemy. The Confederate privateer Sumter has forced the blockade at New Orleans, and has already been heard of destroying a number of Union vessels.


August 5.—At Washington, the representatives of the newspaper press held a consultation with Gen McClellan by his special invitation, when it was unanimously decided that the following suggestions from him be transmitted to the editors of all the newspapers in all the loyal States and in the District of Columbia:

1st. That all such editors be required to refrain from publishing, either as editorial or correspondence, any description, from any point of view, of any matter that might furnish aid and comfort to the enemy.

2d. That they be also requested and earnestly solicited to signify to their correspondents here and elsewhere their approval of the foregoing suggestion, and to comply with it in spirit and letter.

It was resolved that the Government be respectfully requested to afford the representatives of the press facilities for obtaining and immediately transmitting all information suitable for publication, particularly touching engagements with the enemy.

—The following queries were put to the Confederate District-Attorney at Charleston:

First—Is it lawful for a citizen of the Confederate States to purchase of our enemy State stock or bonds of any of the Confederate States, and demand the interest when due?

Second—Is it lawful for the same parties to purchase notes given by merchants of the Southern Confederacy to Northern houses, and demand payment for the same?

Third—If lawful and proper to pursue the above course, would it not be equally legal for the small trader to buy merchandise of the enemy; or, in other words, does the law intend to operate in favor of the fortunate holders of capital against the humble dealers in wares and merchandise?

The response is as follows:—The acts specified by you certainly constitute “trading with the enemy” peculiarly objectionable, because they afford a direct assistance to the enemy, by the transmission of money to foster his resources. And, in addition, such conduct is highly unpatriotic, because directly injurious to the interests of the States and citizens of our Confederacy, whose obligations are thus withdrawn from the enemy’s country, where it is for the interests of the States that they should remain, since they could not there be called upon for payment during the war. Such operations are certainly worse than the simple purchase of merchandise in the enemy’s country, because they, at the same time, aid our enemies and injure our friends.N. Y. Times, August 5.

—Claiborne F. Jackson, the deposed Governor of Missouri, publishes in the Memphis Appeal a document entitled “Declaration of Independence of the State of Missouri,” and addressed to the people of that State. The ex-Governor says he takes this step by virtue of authority conferred upon him by the State Legislature to do such things as to him might seem proper to “suppress the rebellion and repel invasion.” He thereupon assumes that the waging of war by the Federal Government upon the sovereign State of Missouri, ipso facto, sunders the connection of the latter from the former, and accordingly so declares—subject, however, to the ratification of the people at such future time as their Impartial and unbiased verdict can be obtained through the ballot-box, —(Doc. 163.)

—Gen. Lyon with his forces fell back on Springfield, Mo. The rebels were advancing on the latter place by four different roads, and their advance was from ten to fifteen miles distant. Three of the routes on which the enemy were moving, were the Neosho, Carthage, and the Overland roads. Gen. Lyon called in two thousand five hundred Home Guards from the neighborhood. Farther than this addition to his force, no other reinforcements seemed to be near. It was expected that the enemy were resolved on an immediate attack, from the fact that their commissariat was in a miserable condition, the rebels depending on forced contributions for temporary supplies.

It was generally remarked in Springfield that Gen. Lyon was perfectly confident of success, in the event of an attack. The latest estimate places the rebel force at twenty thousand. Their arms are thought to be very inferior, judged by the specimens taken during the skirmish at Dug Spring, where Gen. Lyon had no intrenchments, depending upon his splendid artillery in the open field.—St. Louis Democrat, August 9.

—In the Maryland Legislature to-day, S. Teaklo Wallis, from the committee to whom was referred the memorial of the police commissioners, submitted a long report, followed by preamble and resolutions, setting forth as arbitrary and unconstitutional the course of the Government in superseding the police board, and imprisoning Marshal Kane and the commissioners. The committee appealed in the most earnest manner to the whole people of the country, of all parties, sections, and opinions, to take warning by the usurpations mentioned, and come to the rescue of the free institutions of the country, so that whatever may be the issue of the melancholy conflict which is now covering the land with sacrifice and threatens to overwhelm it with debt and ruin, there may at least survive to us when it is over the republican form of government which our fathers bequeathed to us, and the inestimable rights which they framed it to perpetuate.—N. Y. World, August 6.

—The bark Alvarado, having a prize crew from the privateer Jeff. Davis on board, was chased ashore near Fernandina, Florida, and subsequently burned by the sailors of the United States ship Vincennes.—(Doe. 170.)

—A Sharp skirmish took place this morning in Virginia, opposite the Point of Rocks, between a detachment of sixty men of the Twenty-eighth Regiment of New York Volunteers, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Brown, and a party of cavalry of Capt. Mead’s company of the Confederate army. The Colonel ordered the Confederates to halt, which was not obeyed. The Unionists then fired on them and killed three, wounded two, and took twenty horses, with their equipments, and seven prisoners, who were taken before Gen. Banks. None of the Federal troops were hurt. The engagement occurred at daybreak. The advancing party forded the river, and caught the cavalry pickets of the enemy at breakfast.

The prisoners were brought into camp at Sandy Hook. Nearly every man captured had sword-arms and revolvers. On the sword-belt of one was marked in ink, “John H. Rollins, Leesburg, Va.” One captain of the rebels was killed. Previous reports from Colonel John C. Starkweather, of the First Wisconsin Regiment, stationed at Edward’s Ferry, stimulated the action which resulted so successfully. Colonel Starkweather had already made reconnoissances on the Virginia side, destroyed the rendezvous of the rebel pickets, and had but one man wounded, Mr. W. H. Langworthy, of Company E. All the captured are from Loudon County, Va.—(Doe. 164.)

—In the House of Representatives at Washington, Mr. Calvert, of Maryland, introduced a resolution providing for the appointment of a Committee to consider and report such amendments to the Constitution as may restore confidence and insure the preservation of the Union. Laid on the table.—Mr. May, of Maryland, was refused permission to introduce resolutions providing for the appointment of Commissioners to procure an armistice, and so compromise as to preserve the Union if possible; if not, to provide for the peaceful separation of those States that have seceded or may hereafter secede.— Mr. Diven offered a resolution declaring that, as rebels are now in arms against tho Government, all resolutions looking to a compromise are either cowardly or treasonable. The House refused to suspend the rules to receive Mr. May’s resolution. The Senate bill, increasing the pay of the volunteers and legalizing the acts of the President, was passed.

—A letter written on board the steam-sloop Brooklyn, off the mouth of the Mississippi River, giving an account of the manner by which the rebel privateer Sumter was suffered to run the blockade, was published in the Baltimore American.(Doc. 165.)

—A band of rebels, numbering from one thousand to twelve hundred, made an attack upon a camp of Union men at Athens[1], Missouri, this morning at five o’clock. There was a considerable amount of arms and ammunition for United States troops stored at that place, under a guard of the troops composing the camp. The United States Volunteers numbered about three hundred and fifty men, under the command of Captain Moore. The fighting lasted about one hour, when the rebels retreated. In the mean time Captain Moore, having been reinforced by about one hundred and fifty men from Centralia, Iowa, on the opposite side of the river, gave chase to the rebels for about a mile and a half, killing one, taking eighteen prisoners, and capturing thirty-one horses and two secession flags. Several of the rebels were also wounded in the chase. After the battle, six or eight rebels were found dead on the field. In the afternoon the bearer of a rebel flag of truce to the Union camp was admitted. They carried off fourteen killed, and as many more wounded and missing. The rebels were led by Martin Green, a brother of ex-Senator Green. Of the Union men there were three killed and eight wounded.—(Doc. 166.)

—Several shots were exchanged between the U. S. blockading steamer off Galveston, Texas, and some sand batteries on shore.—(Doc. 167.)

[1] Athens is a small town in the extreme northeast of Missouri, on the Desmoines River, twenty-five or thirty miles from Keokuk.


August 4th.—I had no idea that the sun could be powerful in Washington; even in India the heat is not much more oppressive than it was here to-day. There is this extenuating circumstance, however, that after some hours of such very high temperature, thunder-storms and tornadoes cool the air. I received a message from General McClellan, that he was about to ride along the lines of the army across the river, and would be happy if I accompanied him; but as I had many letters to write for the next mail, I was unwillingly obliged to abandon the chance of seeing the army under such favourable circumstances. There are daily arrivals at Washington of military adventurers from all parts of the world, some of them with many extraordinary certificates and qualifications; but, as Mr. Seward says, “It is best to detain them with the hope of employment on the Northern side, lest some really good man should get among the rebels.” Garibaldians, Hungarians, Poles, officers of Turkish and other contingents, the executory devises and remainders of European revolutions and wars, surround the State department, and infest unsuspecting politicians with illegible testimonials in unknown tongues.



The heat has been greater than ever today. Went to Church with wife and the boys. Lieut Swan & Lieut Gould took breakfast with with [sic] us & Chaplin Buck took dinner with us. He preached at the Capitol this morning. It was too hot for any of us to go out to church this afternoon. The 27th Regt officers and men are now restricted to their own “lines.” The Col or rather Lieut Col must have a pass from Genl Mansfield.


The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of  Congress.


Daily Times [Leavenworth, Ks], August 4, 1861

The Louisville Journal publishes a complete exposition of the objects and rites of the Knights of the Golden Circle, taken from their secret documents. Of these documents, the Journal says: “That they are authentic, we give our solemn assurance as an editor and as a man.” It appears that the primary design of the order, is the conquest of a portion of Mexico, and its conversion into a slave-holding monarchy. But the order has also been a valuable auxiliary to the secession movement, and has been the chief instrument in precipitating the people of the South into rebellion and revolution.

A leading feature of this infamous association is the proscription of foreigners and Catholics. This is in perfect harmony with the spirit of aristocracy and intolerance prevalent among the leaders of the chivalry, and shows that they aim at the destruction of every liberal principle in our form of government. Such doctrines will increase the abhorrence in which they are held by the people of the loyal States. For, we rejoice to say, that the patriotic devotion of the foreign-born citizens to their adopted land, as exhibited by their recent brave services in its defence, has swept from the North the last vestige of Know Nothing bigotry and prejudice.

That feature of the K. G. C., which looks to the establishment of a monarchial government in the territory they propose to seize, is also important and suggestive. It is another evidence that the public sentiment of the South is gradually becoming hostile to republican institutions. Thus slavery and political despotism go hand in hand.


Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, GA],
August 4, 1861

Capt. Fremaux and Wm. S. Read, of the 8th Louisiana Regiment, arrived on Wednesday evening, with the first female prisoner, a Mrs. Curtis, who was captured at Fall’s Church on Sunday last, dressed in military clothes. She belongs, it appears, to the 2d N. Y. Regiment. The woman was on horseback at the time.–Richmond Dispatch, 2d.


August 4. Sunday.—Visited the hospital. It is airy and comfortable—the court-house of the county, a large good building. The judge’s bench was full of invalids, convalescent, busily writing letters to friends at home. Within the bar and on the benches provided for the public were laid straw bedticks in some confusion, but comfortable. A side room contained the very sick, seven or eight in number. The total inmates about seventy-five. Most of them are able to walk about and are improving; very few are likely to die there. One poor fellow, uncomplaining and serene, with a good American face, is a German tailor, Fifth Street, Cincinnati; speaks little English, was reading a history of the Reformation in German. I inquired his difficulty. He had been shot by the accidental discharge of a musket falling from a stack; a ball and several buckshot pierced his body. He will recover probably. My sympathies were touched for a handsome young Canadian, Scotch or English. He had measles and caught cold. A hacking cough was perhaps taking his life. Nobody from the village calls to see them!

A hot day but some breeze. We hear that Colonel Matthews with the right wing was, on the morning of the third day from here, near Bulltown, twenty-seven miles distant. Governor Wise is somewhere near Lewisburg in Greenbrier County. Cox [General J. D.] is in no condition to engage him and I hope will not do it. I rather hope we shall raise a large force and push on towards Lynchburg and east Tennessee. Jewettt is doing well.


WESTON, VIRGINIA, August 4, 1861.

DEAR MOTHER:—I write often now, as we soon pass out of reach of mails. We hear the news by telegraph here now from all the home towns, but mails are uncertain and irregular. We are very healthy, but the weather is hotter than any I have known in a great while. Our wounded lieutenant, Jewett, is doing well. His father is here nursing him. The fine large hospital for all this region of country, having one hundred patients belonging to different regiments, is in charge of Dr. Joe. It is the courthouse. The people here do not find us much of a nuisance. Of course, in some respects we are so, but all things considered, the best of the people like to see us. I mean to go to church this pleasant Sunday. My only clerical acquaintance here is an intelligent Catholic priest who called to see Colonel Scammon. I have been cross-examining a couple of prisoners—one a Methodist preacher—both fair sort of men, and I hope not guilty of any improper acts. Good-bye.





NEAR WESTON, VIRGINIA, August 4, 1861.

DEAR LAURA:—As we ride about this exceedingly pretty country and through this reasonably decent village, I am reminded of young ladies in Ohio by occasionally meeting a damsel wearing a stars-and-stripes apron, or by seeing one who turns up her nose at the said stars, etc.

We are leading camp life again—watching Secessionists, studying geography, sending and receiving scouts and couriers and sich like. Colonel Matthews has gone with the five companies of the right wing forty-four miles further up into the hills. We shall follow him if there are any hostile signs up there, and he will return to us if such sign fail him.

You and Jeanie Ahave been of use. The bandages are used in dressing the shocking wound of young Jewett of Zanesville— a lieutenant, handsome, gallant, and intelligent. Just the person you would wish to serve in this way. Dr. Joe hopes he will not be crippled. At first it seemed that he must lose his foot; but your bandages or something else are bringing him up. It will be perhaps months before he can walk.

The court-house here (about like yours) is a hospital for the sick and wounded of all the regiments hereabouts. It would be a glorious thing if some Florence Nightingales would come here. They could be immensely useful, and at the same time live pleasantly in a pretty mountain village, safe as a bug in a rug. Won’t you come? It is easy getting here and cheap staying. Too hot under canvas to write much. Love to all.

Your uncle,





August 4th, 1866.—I have not made a success of training Frances. She was taught the Ten Commandments. She committed them to memory, each one was carefully explained, but in spite of this I do believe she has broken them all save the sixth, she has not yet been guilty of murder, though I am afraid the will to do it is not lacking.

Mother keeps in her wardrobe a bottle of chloroform, she is very careful of this dangerous medicine and it is used for Mattie when she is suffering with the toothache. Mother locks the door of the wardrobe and usually puts the key under her pillow, but we have not yet become accustomed to the need for a lock and a key and sometimes it is forgotten.

This morning, just before day, Mother was awakened by the strong and penetrating fumes of chloroform. She opened her eyes and there stood Frances pouring the drug out on her pillow. Mother was so drowsy she could not move but by a mighty effort she screamed, this aroused Father and Frances ran, but he was too quick for her and locked the door by which she had entered the house.

She fell on her knees and implored forgiveness; said she was looking for money; said she did not intend to hurt “Miss Patsy,” but when daylight came her mother and her grandparents were summoned and the case laid before them. The result is that they have sent her to an uncle who lives in Tallahassee, with orders never to come here again. I am sure I would be glad to be rid of her, for she has given me more trouble than words can tell.


August 4.—About five o’clock, this morning, the Second Regiment of Connecticut Volunteers, passed through Philadelphia, Pa., on their way home. The regiment is under Colonel A. H. Terry, and participated in the engagement at Bull Run. In the fight they lost sixteen men killed and wounded. The officers of this regiment deny that it was through hunger that the men were exhausted. The Connecticut men were supplied with full haversacks; and the only drawback in their opinion to final success, was the impetuous feeling to go ahead and fight. In order to get within the enemy’s lines, a long march was necessary to this end. From two o’clock A. M. until ten they marched; and even then the men were unable to rest. To this fact alone, the officers of this regiment attribute, in a great measure, the reverse. The regiment acted as part of the reserve, and did not get into battle till late in the day.—Philadelphia Bulletin, August 5.

—A Meeting was held this evening in Rev. Dr. Adams’ Church, on Madison-square, New York city, to aid in measures taken for the prevention and suppression of intemperance in the National Army. A. R. Wetmore, Esq., presided, and Dr. De Witt offered a prayer. Resolutions were read by Dr. Marsh, which were responded to in an able speech by Rev. Mr. Willets, of Brooklyn, and Paymaster Bingham, of the Twenty-sixth Regiment.—(Doc. 162.)

—Admiral Sir Alexander Milne, Commander-in-Chief of the British forces, at Halifax, in a private letter to the British Consul at Boston, says: “I see a long article in the papers and extracts from a letter from Fort Pickens, alluding to orders I have given; all I can say is that it is not my version of blockade nor my orders on the subject.”—Buffalo Evening Courier, August 5.

—Delaware has contributed two regiments for the war. One is already in the field. The other has not yet been complete, and is commanded by Colonel Charles Wharton, brother of George M. Wharton, of Philadelphia. One company of the regiment is entirely made up of Philadelphians. It is the Hancock Guards, Capt. John F. Heishley. The men are remarkably well fed, clothed, and sheltered. In this particular Delaware has equalled, if not surpassed, the other States. They are encamped at Camp Brandywine, Wilmington. — Philadelphia Bulletin, August 5.



Hot still. Went over to the Navy Yard with Julia and Miss Hartly. Went round the shops and on board the Steamer Pensacola which will be completed in a few days. Nothing but cannon, and shot and shells, fill the workshops. Everything there looks warlike. No troops are quartered in the Yard now, four hundred Marines in the Barraks. One of our neighbors boys Willie Lowry fell and was badly hurt today. The Father is at sea. Was down to the camp with wife.


The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of  Congress.


AUGUST 3D.—Conversed with some Yankees to-day who are to be released to-morrow. It appears that when young Lamar lost his horse on the plains of Manassas, the 4th Alabama Regiment had to fall back a few hundred yards, and it was impossible to bear Col. Jones, wounded, from the field, as he was large and unwieldy. When the enemy came up, some half dozen of their men volunteered to convey him to a house in the vicinity. They were permitted to do this, and to remain with him as a guard. Soon after our line advanced, and with such impetuosity as to sweep everything before it. Col. Jones was rescued, and his guard made prisoners. But, for their attention to him, he asked their release, which was granted. They say their curiosity to see a battle-field has been gratified, and they shall be contented to remain at home in safety hereafter. They regarded us as rebels, and believed us divided among ourselves. If this should be true, the rebellion would yet be crushed; but if we were unanimous and continued to fight as we did at Manassas, it would be revolution, and our independence must some day be acknowledged by the United States. But, they say, a great many Northern men remain to be gratified as they had been; and the war will be a terrible one before they can be convinced that a reduction of the rebellion is not a practicable thing.


August 3, 1861.—Called on James T. Jackson, a Secessionist, for a map of Virginia—one of the Board of Public Works maps. He said he once had one but his brother had sold it to a captain in [the] Seventh Regiment. Called then on William E. Arnold, a lawyer and Union man. He offered every facility for getting information and gave such as he could; also lent us a good map. Hottest day yet. Dr. Joe ailing. Young Jewett doing well, but getting tired and sore.


Manassas, August 3,1861.

I reached here last night after spending a day in Staunton. When I reached there I found the militia of Rockbridge, and some of the officers insisted upon my remaining a day to aid them in raising the necessary number of volunteers (270) to have the others disbanded and sent home. I was very glad, indeed, that it was accomplished and the others permitted to return home and attend to their farms. I found, upon reaching Manassas, that our encampment had been removed eight miles from there, in the direction of Alexandria; and after a walk of some three hours I reached here about nine o’clock at night, somewhat fatigued. I do not know what our future operations are to be; but think it probable that we shall remain here for some time in idleness. I am free to confess that I don’t like the prospect; without any employment or amusement, the time will pass with me very unpleasantly, and such soldiering, if long continued, I fear, will make most of us very worthless and lazy; perhaps send us home at last idle loafers instead of useful and industrious citizens. Such a result I should regard as more disastrous than a dozen battles. In passing along the road from Manassas, the whole country seemed filled with our troops, and I understand that our encampment extends as far as eight miles this side of Alexandria. I think we have troops enough to defend the country against any force which may he brought against us.


Since this much of my letter was written, Lewis has handed me your note of 25th ult. You say you are almost tempted, from my short and far between letters, to think that I do not love you as well as I ought. You are a mean sinner to think so. Just think how hard I fought at Manassas to make you the widow of a dead man or the wife of a live one, and this is all the return my darling wife makes for it. If I was near enough I would hug you to death for such meanness. In truth, Love, I may say that I never closed one of my short notes until my eyes began to smart. Sometimes I did not wish to write. When we were for some time on the eve of a battle I did not wish to write lest you might be alarmed for my safety. Until the last month, when danger seemed so threatening, I think I have written once a week. But, Love, when you doubt my affection, you must look to the past, and if the doubt is not dispelled, I can’t satisfy you, and you must continue in the delusion that the truest and steadiest feeling my heart has ever known—my love for you—has passed away.

I know, Love, you think I exposed myself too much in the battle. But for such conduct on the part of thousands, the day would have been lost, and our State would now have been in the possession of our enemies. When I think of the result, and the terrible doom from which we are saved, I feel that I could have cheerfully yielded up my life, and have left my wife and little ones draped in mourning to have achieved it. Our future course must be the same, if we expect a like result.


Standard [Clarksville], Tx, August 3, 1861

We are not likely to suffer for good sweet bread. Mr. Williams, from near Bonham, Texas, arrived in this place last Saturday evening, who informs us that he has 17 wagons heavily loaded with flour, which are expected to arrive during the present week. If Mr. W. does not meet with ready sale for the whole of his flour in this town, he designs sending a part of it to Alexandria and New Orleans. Mr. Williams informs us that he has an excellent mill, running four pair of Burr stones by steam power, and further adds, that he can make as good flour as ever made in Missouri or Illinois. Mr. W. was raised in the wheat region of Virginia, and understands the milling business thoroughly. He furthermore informs us that the citizens of his section of country are taking the greatest pains in raising hogs. So our prediction made years since, that we would live to see flour and meat descend Red River instead of being brought up, is being realized.—South Western.


August 3rd.—McClellan orders regular parades and drills in every regiment, and insists on all orders being given by bugle note. I had a long ride through the camps, and saw some improvement in the look of the men. Coming home by Georgetown, met the Prince driving with M. Mercier, to pay a visit to the President. I am sure that the politicians are not quite well pleased with this arrival, because they do not understand it, and cannot imagine a man would come so far without a purpose. The drunken soldiers now resort to quiet lanes and courts in the suburbs. Georgetown was full of them. It is a much more respectable and old-world looking place than its vulgar, empty, overgrown, mushroom neighbour, Washington. An officer who had fallen in his men to go on duty was walking down the line this evening when his eye rested on the neck of a bottle sticking out of a man’s coat. “Thunder,” quoth he,” James, what have you got there?” “Well, I guess, captain, it’s a drop of real good Bourbon.” “Then let us have a drink,” said the captain; and thereupon proceeded to take a long pull and a strong pull, till the man cried out, “That is not fair, Captain. You won’t leave me a drop.”—a remonstrance which had a proper effect, and the captain marched down his company to the bridge.

It was extremely hot when I returned, late in the evening. I asked the boy for a glass of iced water. “Dere is no ice, massa,” he said. “No ice? What’s the reason of that?” “De Sechessers, massa, block up de river, and touch off deir guns at de ice-boats.” The Confederates on the right bank of the Potomac have now established a close blockade of the river. Lieutenant Wise, of the Navy Department, admitted the fact, but said that the United States gunboats would soon sweep the rebels from the shore.


August 3.—At Baltimore, Md., this morning, Sergeants Wallis and Cook, with Officer James Pryor, of the Middle District Police, went on board the steamer George Weems, at her wharf foot of Frederick street, and on her leaving for the usual trip to various landing places on the Patuxent River, proceeded in her as far as Fort McHenry wharf, where they directed Captain Weems to stop. A search of the steamer was here made, resulting in the discovery of concealed arms and ammunition in various out-of-the-way places in the hold. Immediately under the upper deck, between the lower deck and the skylight, were found 200 new Colt’s patent revolvers, done up singly in paper. In the aft part of the hold the officers found a barrel in which rubbish had been placed for several months. Concealed in the rubbish was a valise filled with boxes, each containing 250 rifle percussion caps. There was also found in the hold, separate from the other freight, a halfbarrel of sulphurated quinine, contained in bottles and packages. On the discovery of these articles General Dix directed that the steamer should be detained for a more minute examination of the freight. He also directed that the steamer Planter should be got ready to convey the passengers to their place of destination.—Captain Weems disavowed any knowledge of the contraband articles.—Baltimore American, August 3.

—Governor Gamble, of Missouri, issued a proclamation to the citizens of that State, in which he calls upon all those who are enrolled in the State militia now in arms against the Federal Government, who were called out by his predecessor, Jackson, to return to their homes, promising them protection if they do so. He appeals to the sheriffs of counties and other magistrates, to exercise all the authority vested in them by law, in arresting and punishing every one who may break the peace, molest his fellow-citizens, or retain arms, the property of the Federal Government. He also notifies all those citizens of other States, who may be in arms within the boundaries of Missouri, (in the rebel ranks,) to withdraw to their own States, as Missouri does not need nor desire their presence. After the issue of this proclamation, Governor Gamble received a despatch from the War Department, stating his promise of protection to all those who may lay down their arms would be sustained by the Government. In several counties of Northern Missouri committees of safety have been appointed to suppress rebellion, with the assurance that if they cannot effect that purpose, the military power will be used to its utmost extent.—(Doc. 156.)

—The Charleston Mercury of to-day, says: “We have been provoked beyond endurance by reading the most complacent and gratulatory comments of certain Virginia papers on the charming charity and benevolence of certain citizens and officials of that State toward the invaders of their soil, plunderers of their estates, destroyers of their homes and firesides, and polluters of their women. We demand that every prisoner in Richmond be incarcerated and put in irons. Justice, humanity, and civilization alike cry aloud for ‘stern retribution.’ ”

—Senator Kennedy, of Maryland, in the Senate, at Washington, presented a memorial from the Legislature of that State, denouncing the National Government in unmeasured terms, and protesting against its action in imprisoning Ross Winans and others suspected of conspiracy. Its reception was objected to by several members on account of its disrespectful tone, but it was finally admitted and ordered to be printed, on the ground that it would not do to deny the right of petition.—N. Y.Times, August 5.

—Beriah Magoffin, Governor of Kentucky, issued a proclamation commanding all persons having arms belonging to the State, that have been unlawfully seized, to immediately deliver them up, that they may be returned to the State Arsenal, at Frankfort.—(Doc. 157.)

—The Senate of the United States confirmed numerous army appointments. Among them are Major-Generals McClellan, Fremont, Dix, and Banks; and Brigadier-Generals Hooker, Curtis, McCall, Sherman, Lander, Kelly, Kearney, Pope, Heintzelman, Porter, Stone, Reynolds, Hunter, Franklin, Rosecrans, Buell, Mansfield, McDowell, and Meigs.—Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5.

—The Twenty-ninth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, under the command of Colonel John K. Murphy, left Hestonville, West Philadelphia, for the seat of war.—Philadelphia Press, August 8.

—Mrs. Lincoln having kindly consented to receive and distribute the havelocks made by the ladies of Katonah and Bedford, Westchester, N. Y., a case was despatched to-day from the Jay homestead to the executive mansion by Pillion’s and Adams’s express, containing 1,300 havelocks, of which 1,165 were made by the ladies of Katonah and its vicinity, and 135 by those of Bedford.—N. Y. World, August 6.

—A letter from Isham G. Harris, Governor of Tennessee, to the editors of the Memphis Avalanche, on the military power of that State, was published.—(Doc. 158.)

—The First Regiment of New Hampshire State Militia, under the command of Colonel Mason W. Tappan, passed through Philadelphia on their return from the seat of war. This regiment composed part of the command of Col. Stone, and marched to Harper’s Ferry, Va. They have been principally on guard duty, and had a skirmish with the rebels at Harper’s Ferry. The men have performed marches on foot to the extent of one hundred and sixty miles since they left Washington. The regiment has twenty ladies with them. They return numerically as strong as when they left, except six of the men, who were taken prisoners.—Philadelphia Bulletin, August 5.

—The House of Representatives, at Washington, passed, with a slight amendment, the Confiscation Bill. The amendment is, that slaves in the military or naval service, or working in the intrenchments of the rebels, will be confiscated.—(Doc. 159.)

—The Sixth Regiment of Wisconsin Volunteers, commanded by Colonel L. Cutler, and the Twenty-first Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, under the command of Colonel J. W. McMillan, arrived at Baltimore, Md.—Baltimore American, August 5.

—The N. Y. Journal of Commerce suggests as “a way by which our troubles can be settled without more bloodshed”—1, an armistice ; 2, delegates from every State, North and South, to meet at Louisville; 3, the delegates to agree upon a modified Constitution; or 4, a peaceable separation.

One of its plans for reconstruction is to have a Northern and Southern section in each House of Congress, and no bill to become a law until agreed to by a majority on both sides!—(Doc. 160.)

—As engagement took place at Messila, N. M., between a body of Federal troops and seven hundred Confederates, under command of Capt. Baylor. Capt. McNeely and Lieutenant Brooks, of thr Federal army, were wounded in the engagement, and twelve of the Confederates killed. Night coming on put an end to the engagement.—Baltimore American, August 21.

—The secret expedition from Fortress Monroe to the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bar, under the command of Captain Crosby, U. S. A, returned to Old Point Comfort. The object of the expedition was to search for vessels engaged in illegal trade, and to reconnoitre the coast for defences erected by the rebels.— (Doc. 161.)


Late addition to Volume 3:


August 3.—Lient.-Col. Baylor, commanding the rebel forces in Arizona, has issued a proclamation taking possession of the Territory in the name and on behalf of the Confederate States, declaring all offices, civil and military, vacant and no longer existing, and making provision for the government of the Territory until such time as the Confederate Congress may otherwise provide. Col. Baylor, as Governor of the Territory, has also appointed a Secretary of the Territory, Attorney-General, and other officers. —Lieut. R. H. Brewer, late of the first regiment of the United States Dragoons, has arrived in New Orleans, and informs the Picayune that on the 5th ultimo, Gen. A. S. Johnston, who arrived from California, was at Picach, about five miles north of Mesilla, in command of the Confederate forces, which command, tendered by Lieut.-Col. Baylor, the General had accepted. The Confederate forces numbered about five hundred men, and had four pieces of artillery. They were awaiting the approach of four companies of Federal troops (two companies of dragoons and two companies of infantry) under command of Lieut. Moore. Forts Breckinridge and Buchanan had been destroyed.—Mesilla Times, August 3.

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