FEBRUARY 23D.—At last we have the astounding tidings that Donelson has fallen, and Buckner, and 9000 men, arms, stores, everything are in possession of the enemy! Did the President know it yesterday? Or did the Secretary keep it back till the new government (permanent) was launched into existence? Wherefore? The Southern people cannot be daunted by calamity!

Last night it was still raining—and it rained all night. It was a lugubrious reception at the President’s mansion. But the President himself was calm, and Mrs. Davis seemed in spirits. For a long time I feared the bad weather would keep the people away; and the thought struck me when I entered, that if there were a Lincoln spy present, we should have more ridicule in the Yankee presses on the paucity of numbers attending the reception. But the crowd came at last, and filled the ample rooms. The permanent government had its birth in storm, but it may yet flourish in sunshine. For my own part, however, I think a provisional government of few men, should have been adopted “for the war.”


February 23d.—While Mr. Chesnut was in town I was at the Prestons. John Cochran and some other prisoners had asked to walk over the grounds, visit the Hampton Gardens, and some friends in Columbia. After the dreadful state of the public mind at the escape of one of the prisoners, General Preston was obliged to refuse his request. Mrs. Preston and the rest of us wanted him to say “Yes,” and so find out who in Columbia were his treacherous friends. Pretty bold people they must be, to receive Yankee invaders in the midst of the row over one enemy already turned loose amid us.

General Preston said: “We are about to sacrifice life and fortune for a fickle multitude who will not stand up to us at last.” The harsh comments made as to his lenient conduct to prisoners have embittered him. I told him what I had heard Captain Trenholm say in his speech. He said he would listen to no criticism except from a man with a musket on his shoulder, and who had beside enlisted for the war, had given up all, and had no choice but to succeed or die.


23d.—Notwithstanding the violence of the rain yesterday, the Capitol Square, the streets around it, and the adjacent houses, were crowded. The President stood at the base of that noble equestrian statue of Washington, and took the oath which was taken by the “Father of his Country” more than seventy years ago—just after the “great rebellion,” in the success of which we all, from Massachusetts to Georgia, so heartily gloried. No wonder that he spoke as if he were inspired. Was it not enough to inspire him to have the drawn sword of Washington, unsheathed in defence of his invaded country, immediately over his head, while the other hand of his great prototype points encouragingly to the South? Had he not the life-like representations of Jefferson, George Mason, and, above all, of Patrick Henry, by his side? The latter with his scroll in his outstretched hand, his countenance beaming, his lips almost parted, and seeming on the point of bursting into one blaze of eloquence in defence of his native South. How could Southern tongues remain quiet, or Southern hearts but burn within us, when we beheld our heroes, living and dead, surrounding and holding up the hands of our great chief? By him stood his cabinet, composed of the talent and the patriotism of the land; then was heard the voice of our beloved Assistant Bishop, in tones of fervid eloquence, beseeching the blessings of Heaven on our great undertaking. I would that every young man, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, could have witnessed the scene.


Last night was the first levee. The rooms were crowded. The President looked weary and grave, but was all suavity and cordiality, and Mrs. Davis won all hearts by her usual unpretending kindness. I feel proud to have those dear old rooms, arousing as they do so many associations of my childhood and youth, filled with the great, the noble, the fair of our land, every heart beating in unison, with one great object in view, and no wish beyond its accomplishment, as far as this world is concerned. But to-day is Saturday, and I must go to the hospital to take care of our sick— particularly to nurse our little soldier-boy. Poor child, he is very ill!


February 23.—Gen. Buell, with three hundred mounted men and a battery of artillery, took possession of Gallatin, Tenn.—New-York Herald, March 3.

—This day Fayetteville, Arkansas, (a town on White River, one hundred and ninety-six miles northwest of Little Rock,) was captured by Gen. Curtis. The rebels fled in great confusion across the Boston Mountains. They burnt a portion of the town before they retired, besides perpetrating an act of cowardly vandalism, which it is almost difficult to believe, had it not been too fatally verified. The rebels left a quantity of poisoned meat behind them, which unhappily was partaken of by the National troops, and resulted in poisoning forty officers and men of the Fifth Missouri cavalry, among them one or two valuable commanding officers. Such deeds entitle the perpetrators to no mercy.—(Doc. 60.)

—The Eighty-first regiment of New-York volunteers, under the command of Col. Edwin Rose, arrived in New-York from Albany.

—Gen. Halleck issued an order, to be read to all the troops under his command, defining the policy to be pursued by the forces as they advance. Private property is to be strictly respected, and all non-combatants are to be regarded as neutrals in the existing war; these, however, who give any aid to the secessionists are to be regarded as belligerents, and treated as such. Regarding the slavery question as a matter in which the civil and not the military authorities have jurisdiction, he prohibits the admission of fugitive slaves within the lines of the army, except by special order of the generals commanding.—(Doc. 61.)

—Nashville, Tenn., was evacuated by the rebel troops this day.


Feb. 22nd. Started at 2 A. M. Went to and surrounded Independence. After search found none, so started to return at seven A. M. Stopped a little distance out of town, down a hill, and got feed for our horses. Ordered to be ready to go on at ten A. M. All ready at the time. Three or four fellows up town, fired upon, bring the report that rebel troops are in town. Forthwith all the companies, all ready, start at full gallop, Company L leading. The enemy after one volley, wheel and run down into the gully east, our troops following closely, and firing as they go. At the forks in the road they scatter, some going straight forward and some getting into lots behind buildings and stumps and then firing. The boys charged upon them, killing two and taking five prisoners. Brownell was shot. After passing him to see if there was a chance to shoot and finding none, I returned to him. Helped him up hill to barber shop. Citizens assisted zealously. Three wounded. Stayed by them until ready to return. In the meantime Nettleton and the command went up the road in search of the rebels. Found none. One of our men killed. Co. L. Saw two rebels dead—awful sight—all over dirt and such an expression upon their countenances. Reached camp at Kansas City at 4 P. M. All pleased with the expedition. Issued rations.


Saturday, February 22. — Washington’s Birthday was appropriately celebrated by firing salutes, and by the parade of the different regiments, and the reading of Washington’s Farewell Address before them. The day was not favorable for any extensive preparations, it being rainy most of the time. I walked out into the woods about half a mile from the camps, and practised with my pistol, making some pretty fair shots considering the little practice I have had. I am reviewing Hardee and last night got as far as “School of the Battalion.” I find, however, that reading The Cloister and the Hearth is much more entertaining.


Saturday Feb 22nd 1862

This has been kept as a Holy day in the City. The public offices have all been closed. Salutes have been fired from almost every direction. We all went to the Capitol to see and hear. The Hall of the House of Representatives was more than crowded. It was expected that the Rebel flags which have been taken would be presented to Congress, it was so published in the programme, but after organizeing, the House very properly refused by resolution to receive them or recognize them. John W Forney, clerk of the Senate, read Washingtons farewell address after a prayer by the Chaplin Rev Mr Stockton. The Floor was filled by the two Houses, the Diplomatic corps, the high officers of the Army & Navy, and other notables. I counted forty two Generals & Comodores on the floor. The Cabinet was there. The President was not there. The illumination of the public buildings did not take place. A few Stores & private buildings were illuminated. More rain this evening. I went down to the Ave.


The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of Congress.


FEBRUARY 22D.—Such a day! The heavens weep incessantly. Capitol Square is black with umbrellas; and a shelter has been erected for the President to stand under.

I walked up to the monument and heard the Inaugural read by the President. He read it well, and seemed self-poised in the midst of disasters, which he acknowledged had befallen us. And he admitted that there had been errors in our war policy. We had attempted operations on too extensive a scale, thus diffusing our powers which should have been concentrated. I like these candid confessions. They augur a different policy hereafter, and we may hope for better results in the future. We must all stand up for our country.

Mr. Hunter has resigned, and taken his place in the Senate.


Cincinnati, February 22, 1862.

Dear Mother: — I am ready to start back to Virginia on the first steamer for the Kanawha River. I expect to get off tomorrow or next day.

I found Uncle in good health for him. The other friends were as usual. … I returned home Monday finding all here as 1 left them.

The recent victories convince everybody that the Rebellion can be conquered. Most people anticipate a speedy end of the war. I am not so sanguine of a sudden wind-up, but do not doubt that the Confederacy is fatally wounded. We are having a gaudy celebration of the 22nd here with the usual accompaniments which delight the children.

Affectionately, your son,


Mrs. Sophia Hayes.


January 28 to February 22, 1862

On the 28th of January, we sailed for Fortress Monroe, and proceeded down the Delaware, amid a quantity of ice, which was daily increasing. The weather had been stormy for several days, and the men working in the cold rains had in many instances contracted severe lung diseases, so that at the time of sailing there were some fifteen patients in bed and a large number of others under treatment; besides, the ship was in a disordered state, which is always the case with a ship just in commission under such circumstances.

Our ship is a first class steam sloop-of-war, carrying twenty nine-inch Dahlgren guns, besides two twenty-lb. rifled pivots, and a supply of howitzers.

We arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 29th, where we found five men-of-war, three of them American and two French; among them was the U. S. Frigates Minnesota and Roanoke. We lay there four days, during which time Surgeon Wood was detached and ordered on board the Minnesota, with the understanding that we were to find an experienced surgeon on board the frigate Niagara, which then lay off Ship Island. We left here on Sunday, February 2d, and stood for Port Royal, and had a middling kind of passage, the weather being somewhat stormy and the ship rolling considerably.

On Tuesday at 3:10 P. M., a man died of measles, and an hour afterwards we reached Port Royal and cast anchor among a fleet of naval vessels. The land here is low and sandy, and covered with trees which to all appearances were the Palmetto. As I looked inland from our anchorage I could see one of the captured forts on our left; but few buildings of any kind were visible; quite a number of Commodore Dupont’s fleet were still here, a prominent one being the flag-ship Wabash, which had been somewhat damaged in the recent taking of the place.

We left the place on the 6th for Key West, and having a head wind all the way made slight progress, though the weather was pleasant, having lost much of the chilliness of the Delaware region. We arrived at Key West on the 11th February, where we met and were saluted by the U. S. steam sloop of war Pensacola; the U. S. steamer Connecticut was also here, and the famous yacht Wanderer, and several mortar boats of Captain Porter’s fleet.

Fort Taylor at this place is quite a formidable looking structure, mounting fifty to seventy-five guns, I should judge, and situated near it is the U. S. Hospital, surrounded with evergreens and quite inviting. The inhabitants are said to number about five thousand. After being at sea this place looks pleasant; cocoa trees spring up here spontaneously, and for a few cents each I obtained a small supply of oranges. We coaled ship here, and sent our letters home by the U. S. steamer Connecticut; here we buried another man, an aged fireman; the weather strongly reminded me of hats, and several of the officers laid in a supply for future use.

We left Key West on the 15th for Havana, and had a pleasant passage, arriving there after dark on the same day, a Spanish pilot coming off and taking us into the harbor. The bay in the evening was beautiful in the extreme; there were several large men-of-war in port, of different nations; also a large number of merchantmen. The evening sky was clear as day, and locomotives snorting so naturally reminded one forcibly of home, sweet home.

The day following was Sunday, and it was nearly all spent in exchanging salutes with the English, French and Spanish men-of-war, receiving the U. S. Consul on board with a salute, saluting the Governor, &c. Our war feelings were much excited by seeing two or three Confederate State flags, “the very articles that we were destined to suppress,” floating high in the air from the masts of three Confederate merchantmen that were enjoying the protection of this neutral port.

Havana is a pleasant city, situated mostly on a sort of peninsula formed by a pretty bay setting into the land, making a beautiful harbor, with only one narrow and deep outlet which is guarded by the renowned Moro Castle. It is well lighted with gas and supplied with evergreen shade trees, causing a comfortable appearance night or day. Bumboats, so-called, swarm around the ships at anchor, selling oranges, guava jelly, pies and fruit, and articles peculiar to the place and climate.

On the night of the 17th we left this place for Ship Island, to relieve the flag-ship Niagara, then stationed there. The weather was pleasant and wind favorable, and we had an agreeable trip. We fell in with schools of the little flying fish which abound in these waters. On the second day out we overhauled and boarded a schooner with the British flag protecting it, though circumstances caused the belief that she was American born at least; on the same afternoon we met and spoke the beautiful new steamship Constitution, from Ship Island.

We arrived at Ship Island on the evening of the 20th, received and returned a salute from the frigate Niagara, which hauled down her blue pennant on our coming to anchor, thereby transferring her importance to the Hartford, and gave us a salute of thirteen guns in honor of our flag-officer, which was duly returned. The Niagara had in tow the Confederate steamer Magnolia, loaded with eleven hundred bales of cotton, which had been captured on the day previous by the U. S. sloop-of-war Brooklyn and the U. S. steamer South Carolina, while attempting to run the blockade off the Mississippi.

We here found several U. S. gunboats; among them the New London and Water Witch, which were scouring the adjacent waters in search of prizes. There were also a few thousand troops on the island, belonging to Brig. Gen. Butler’s command. The island is merely a low sand bank, nearly destitute of vegetation, with a little extemporized fort mounting two or three guns, erected, I believe, simply for the present exigencies.

The 21st was signalized by the capture of eleven oyster sloops by the New London, which afforded us a taste of the bivalves, which we much enjoyed. On the 22d more prizes arrived, and in the evening the U. S. steam transport Rhode Island, loaded with provisions, letters, &c., to gladden the hearts of the sailors and cause a reaction in their monotonous life.

Washington’s birth-day was commemorated by salutes from the Hartford and Niagara and dressing the ships in flags.


Washington’s Birthday.—Patriotic services were held in the Congregational Church this morning. Madame Anna Bishop sang, and National songs were sung. Hon. James C. Smith read Washington’s Farewell Address. In the afternoon a party of twenty-two, young and old, took a ride in the Seminary boat and went to Mr Paton’s on the lake shore road. We carried flags and made it a patriotic occasion. I sat next to Spencer F. Lincoln, a young man from Naples who is studying law in Mr Henry Chesebro’s office. I never met him before but he told me he had made up his mind to go to the war. It is wonderful that young men who have brilliant prospects before them at home, will offer themselves upon the altar of their country. I have some new patriotic stationery. There is a picture of the flag on the envelope and underneath, “If any one attempts to haul down the American Flag shoot him on the spot.— John A. Dix.”


February 22.—To-day I had hoped to see our President inaugurated, but the rain falls in torrents, and I cannot go. So many persons are disappointed, but we are comforted by knowing that the inauguration will take place, and that the reins of our government will continue to be in strong hands. His term of six years must be eventful, and to him, and all others, so full of anxiety! What may we not experience during those six years? Oh, that all hearts may this day be raised to Almighty God for his guidance! Has there been a day since the Fourth of July, 1776, so full of interest, so fraught with danger, so encompassed by anxiety, so sorrowful, and yet so hopeful, as this 22d of February, 1862? Our wrongs then were great, and our enemy powerful, but neither can the one nor the other compare with all that we have endured from the oppression, and must meet in the gigantic efforts of the Federal Government. Our people are depressed by our recent disasters, but our soldiers are encouraged by the bravery and endurance of the troops at Donelson. It fell, but not until human nature yielded from exhaustion. The Greeks were overcome at Thermopylae, but were the Persians encouraged by their success? Did they still cherish contempt for their weak foe? And will the conquerors of Donelson meet our little army again with the same self-confidence? Has not our Spartan band inspired them with great respect for their valour, to say nothing of awe?

Our neighbour in the next room had two sons in that dreadful fight. Do they survive? Poor old lady! she can hear nothing from them; the telegraphic wires in Tennessee are cut, and mail communication very uncertain. It is so sad to see the mother and sister quietly pursuing their avocations, not knowing, the former says, whether she is not the second time widowed; for on those sons depend not only her comfort, but her means of subsistence, and that fair young girl, always accustomed to perfect ease, is now, with her old mother, boarding—confined to one room, using her taste and ingenuity, making and altering bonnets for her many acquaintances, that her mother may be supplied with the little luxuries to which she has always been accustomed, and which, her child says, “mother must have.” “Our property,” she says, “is not available, and, of course, ‘the boys’ had to give up their business to go into the army.”


February 22d.—What a beautiful day for our Confederate President to be inaugurated! God speed him; God keep him; God save him!

John Chesnut’s letter was quite what we needed. In spirit it is all that one could ask. He says, “Our late reverses are acting finely with the army of the Potomac. A few more thrashings and every man will enlist for the war. Victories made us too sanguine and easy, not to say vainglorious. Now for the rub, and let them have it!”

A lady wrote to Mrs. Bunch: “Dear Emma: When shall I call for you to go and see Madame de St. Andre?” She was answered: “Dear Lou: I can not go with you to see Madame de St. Andre, but will always retain the kindest feeling toward you on account of our past relations,” etc. The astounded friend wrote to ask what all this meant. No answer came, and then she sent her husband to ask and demand an explanation. He was answered thus: “My dear fellow, there can be no explanation possible. Hereafter there will be no intercourse between my wife and yours; simply that, nothing more.” So the men meet at the club as before, and there is no further trouble between them. The lady upon whom the slur is cast says, “and I am a woman and can’t fight!”


February 22.—A proclamation was issued by Henry T. Clark, rebel Governor of North-Carolina, calling upon the people of his State to respond to the requisition made upon them by the President of the Confederate States, and fill up their quota in the army for the special defence of the State. He urges every argument of past renown and present need to induce them to enlist against their “invaders,” who are threatening to advance upon them, he says, “in a spirit of vengeful wickedness without a parallel.”—(Doc. 56.)

—In accordance with the recommendation of the President of the United States, the anniversary of the birth of George Washington was celebrated throughout the loyal United States with appropriate ceremonies.—The sloop-of-war Adirondack was launched at the Navy-yard at Brooklyn, New-York, to-day.

—At Fort Donelson Gen. Grant issued the following order:

“Tennessee, by her rebellion, having ignored all laws of the United States, no courts will be allowed to act under State authority, but all cases coming within the reach of the military arm, will be adjudicated by the authorities the Government has established within the State.

“Martial law is therefore declared to extend over West-Tennessee. Whenever a sufficient number of citizens return to their allegiance to maintain law and order over the territory, the military restriction here indicated will be removed.”

—The inauguration of Jefferson Davis, as President of the “permanent” government of the Confederate States, was celebrated to-day, with befitting solemnity, at Richmond, Va. The ceremonies began at noon, and were conducted in front of the capitol. An earnest and impressive inaugural was delivered by the President-elect, after which the oath of office was administered to him by J. D. Halyburton, Confederate Judge. The oath to the Vice-President-elect, Alexander H. Stephens, was then administered by the President of the Senate, after which the President and Vice-President were escorted to their respective homes by the committee of arrangements.—(Doc. 58.)

—The anniversary of the birthday of Washington was celebrated to-day at a public breakfast at Freemasons’ Tavern, in London, England. The Bishop of Ohio presided, and two hundred ladies and gentlemen were present.

Hon. C. F. Adams, United States Minister, in proposing a toast to the memory of Washington, referred to the crisis in America. “The United States,” he said, “are engaged in throwing off the burden of a malign power. The assault on the Federal Government carries with it an aggressive principle. It involved the acknowledgment of a prescriptive right of some men to rule over their fellows. We must then fully reestablish our fundamental doctrines at every hazard. It will doubtless cost us a severe effort in men, money, time, disorder, and perhaps confusion; but let us remember the trials which Washington endured; let us trust that we arc passing through this fire of purification, only to gather, as of yore, the moral fruits of self-devotion.”

The Bishop of Ohio proposed “the health of Queen Victoria,” which was drank with much enthusiasm.

Mr. Moss, United States Consul at London, proposed the next toast, which was, “the Union.”

Mr. Cyrus W. Field proposed, “England and America,” and invoked the sympathy of England, which would ultimately remove from the United States the great cause which had produced the present troubles.

The proceedings lasted for upward of five hours, and terminated in a vote of thanks to the Bishop of Ohio.—New-York Times, March 6.


Louisa May AlcottFebruary. —Visited about, as my school did not bring enough to pay board and the assistant I was made to have, though I didn’t want her.
Went to lectures ; saw Booth at the Goulds’, —a handsome, shy man, glooming in a corner.
Very tired of this wandering life and distasteful work; but kept my word and tugged on.
Hate to visit people who only ask me to help amuse others, and often longed for a crust in a garret with freedom and a pen. I never knew before what insolent things a hostess can do, nor what false positions poverty can push one into.


Friday 21st

It has been pleasant today, it was frozen up this morning. I have been in the office as usual. Willie Taft spent part of the day with me at the office while his Ma & the other boys went to the Presidents. The illumination will not take place tomorrow night in consequence of the Presidents affliction. The news from Tennessee is favorable for our cause, Nashville is probably in our possession. I have not been out tonight. Julia interested us for an hour reciting poetry from different authors. She quite surprised me with the accuracy of her reading (or rendering) Schillers Battle piece, E A Poes “Bells” &c. She recited whole pages from memory. “Bengen on the Rhine” was finely done, also “our Flag.” Near 11 o’clock. Julia and the boys were abed long ago. I have been Drafting some. Wife is frying doughnuts in the Kitchen.


The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of Congress.


21st.—No grounds yet on which to base an opinion as to when or where we shall go. One day brings us assurances that our Division will in a few days go to Annapolis to join the mortar fleet bound South. The next we hear that we are to advance and take Manassas. To-day we hear that we are shortly to go to Kentucky, and join the fighting army under Buell. There is also a rumor here that the rebels are leaving Manassas in great numbers. If that be true (the President and Gen. McClellan both believe it), we shall probably advance on that stronghold and occupy it ourselves until we are ready for the “on to Richmond ” move. But why, if we have been staying here all winter to “bag the enemy” at Manassas, do we now lie still and permit them to leave? This “gives me pause” in my opinions. I do not like such doings, nor can I quite comprehend such Generalship. But it is not for me to criticise the plans of educated military leaders. I presume they know much better than I, what is best to be done, and I shall still confide in their judgment and wisdom.

This, morning Brigade Surgeon _____, of Brigade _____, made the following statement on the investigation of my hospital management and condition: “I was Surgeon of a Regiment in the three months service; since then I have been Brigade Surgeon of four Brigades;” (including 18 regiments) ” I have seen no hospital fund anywhere as large as that of this hospital; I have seen none managed with more economy, nor any patients made so comfortable. I have seen no Surgeon anywhere who seemed to feel so lively an interest in the hospital and the welfare of his Regiment; I have seen no Surgeon who devoted so many hours in the service of the sick, as this Surgeon.”

This statement, coming officially from a Surgeon whose duty it has been to supervise the care of the hospitals and the treatment of the sick; from an officer whose business has for the last ten months brought him in contact with half the hospitals of the army of the Potomac, and whose headquarters have been for several months within sixty feet of my hospital, was gratifying to me, and entirely satisfactory to those whose duty it was made to investigate, and they so expressed themselves in dismissing the subject.


Feb. 21st. Continued our journey and reached Kansas City a little after noon. Arrested two men pretending to be secessionists—drunk. Encamped out on snow and ice a little distance from town. Major heard of a gang of jay-hawkers and secessionists at Independence under Parker and Quantrell. He detailed 150 men to go after them under Lieutenant Nettleton. Brownell and I got leave to go too. Was up nearly all night issuing cartridges and preparing to go.


London, February 21,1862

Of course if you remain on the island there can be little use for your arm of the service, so I presume you may be employed mainly in the labor of the manège. And even if on the mainland I cannot well conceive what business you can have in a region so sparsely settled with whites and with few elements of aptitude for military operations. Neither Savannah nor Charleston can be taken by cavalry, and apart from these ports what is there in that country important to the object of the war?


To be sure you may individually obtain much insight into the economy of that densely populated slave region, and thus reinforce your means of speculating on the cotton producing theory. If so, I should very well like to see the conclusions to which you may come. To me at this distance it looks very much as if the slave tenure must be irreparably damaged by the social convulsion through which the country is passing, but I confess myself puzzled to see what is likely to take its place. I learn that some letters reach here from Carolina planters declaring that they are utterly ruined. The end to them may then be emigration. And what then? Is it a community of negroes requiring to be taught the very rudiments of social and political economy? . . .

The Trent affair has proved thus far somewhat in the nature of a sharp thunderstorm which has burst without doing any harm, and the consequence has been a decided improvement of the state of the atmosphere. Our English friends are pleased with themselves and pleased with us for having given them the opportunity to be so. The natural effect is to reduce the apparent dimensions of all other causes of offense. The Manchester people are patient and uncomplaining. The distress is not yet of such a kind as to give rise to much uneasiness, and the blockade shuts up the expectation of cotton enough to stimulate the prospect of production in other quarters, so that England shall not be again subject to a similar catastrophe. In the meantime industry naturally seeks new channels, and emigration affords a steady outlet. So that I am now quite encouraged to think that the prospect of interference with us is growing more and more remote. All that I have ever sought for has been the opportunity of developing our policy of repression. At first I confess I had little confidence in its success. But of late I have been thinking better and better of it. And it seems to me that the same impression is growing all around me. . . . The struggle is a tremendous one, and must not be measured hastily. I pity the people of the southern states, but I have no mercy for their profligate leaders, who have wantonly brought them to such a catastrophe.

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