Friday 17th

Nothing new today. Soft moderate weather, the crossings all slush. Very muddy everywhere off the sidewalk. No particular war news. The financial affairs of the Nation look better. The 150,000,000 Tax Bill has passed both Houses of Congress which is a basis upon which loans can be made as it makes the interest sure. G. D. Prentice was writing in our room an hour or two today, he is quite a sober looking man. I went on to 7th St with “Bud” and got him a pair [of] Rubbers. Ha[ve] spent the evening at home. “Holly” has a bad cold, the rest of us in pretty good health but all fearing the small pox. Julia has been re-vaccinated, the rest of us will be.

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The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of Congress.

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“Empire City,” Off Port Royal
Friday, January, 1862

We are just making harbor on the fifth day out, after a decidedly rough and long passage. We ought to have got in yesterday, but missed the harbor and for the last twenty-four hours have been cruising up and down the coast, in a northeaster, between Tybee island and Charleston light, and will barely get in today. The voyage has been very severe on our horses which look most decidedly used up, and a fair average of men have been down and could fully describe the pleasures of seasickness — as also could most of the officers, including myself, who passed the second day out on my back, but since then have picked up sufficiently to be on my feed, drink, and smoke, and round while my bed is made. We have left the winter fairly behind us and now in a couple of days we shall settle down at Beaufort, but what to do, the Lord only knows. . . .

You set up for a philosopher. You write letters à la Horace Walpole; you talk of loafing round Europe; you pretend to have seen life. Such twaddle makes me feel like a giant Warrington talking to an infant Pendennis. You “tired of this life”! You more and more “callous and indifferent about your own fortunes!” Pray how old are you and what has been your career? You graduate and pass two years in Europe, and witness by good luck a revolution. You come home and fall upon great historic events and have better chances than any young man to witness and become acquainted with them. You go abroad while great questions are agitated in a position to know all about them. Fortune has done nothing but favor you and yet you are “tired of this life.” You are beaten back everywhere before you are twenty-four, and finally writing philosophical letters you grumble at the strange madness of the times and have n’t even faith in God and the spirit of your age. What do you mean by thinking, much less writing such stuff? “No longer any chance left of settled lives and Christian careers!” Do you suppose the world is coming to an end now? Had n’t you better thank God that your lot is cast in great times? How am I throwing myself away? Is n’t a century’s work of my ancestors worth a struggle to preserve? Am I likely to do so much that it won’t do for me to risk my precious life in this great struggle? Come — no more of this. Don’t get into this vein again, or if you do, keep it to yourself. . . . We shall come out all right and if we don’t, the world will. Excuse me if I have been rough, but it will do you good. . . .

We are just taking a pilot on board off Hilton Head and in a few hours we shall sully the soil of Carolina. Ah, would n’t I like to ride into Charleston! I don’t know when you will hear from me again, but perhaps my letters will come as regularly as ever. We shall be very busy and hard at work for some time and may soon see service. I well know how eagerly the news from Port Royal will be wished for in the breakfast room of the Legation at London. Meanwhile I am very well and in very good spirits and look forward to having a very pleasant time, though very monotonous and so keep the parents easy. . . .

We have just arrived at Hilton Head and come to anchor. We are going up to Beaufort tomorrow. Weather delicious and all well….

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Jan. 17. The great storm has at last subsided and the sun once more shines out. All the bands are out playing, everything is putting on a more cheerful appearance, and we can now look around and see the result of the storm. Boats and vessels are ashore all around us, in a partially wrecked or damaged condition. The upper works of our boat are little better than a wreck, from the bowsprits of schooners and catheads of other craft that have fouled with us. Our accommodations are rather limited as is also the fare, but by practicing forbearance and great good nature, the harmony is as perfect as could be expected. A tug is alongside with rations, so at last the long fast is broken. I think the boys will not be over nice about their dinners when they get them. I have sometimes thought I could relish a dinner from that soup I saw at the park barracks. Our dinner today was served about 1 p. m.; bill of fare, pea soup and coffee. I have always persuaded myself that I didn’t like pea soup and wouldn’t eat it, but today I changed my mind and thought I never ate anything that tasted quite so good as pea soup. I voted it a great luxury.

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January 17.—One hundred and fifty prisoners, released from the rebel government at Richmond, Va., arrived at Fortress Monroe. All of them were convalescents from the hospital. About twenty had crutches, and a dozen had to be carried on board, some on cots. All of them had been wounded. Dr. Higginbotham accompanied them, and the men were loud in commendation of his uniform kindness to them, and after cordially grasping his hand in taking leave of him, they gave him three enthusiastic cheers. They then saluted the old Stars and Stripes with a burst of enthusiasm that brought tears to the eyes, many waving their crutches above their heads. On the way back the wharves and embankments at Newport News were thronged with soldiers who greeted the released prisoners with tremendous cheers. The Cumberland and Congress, lying in the Roads, were also manned and gave a most enthusiastic greeting to the prisoners.

—This night, at Lynchburgh, Va., the Confederate flag, which had been flying from the yard of John O. L. Goggin, was forcibly torn down by some traitorous scoundrel, the flagstaff broken in two, and the cord by which the flag was hoisted cut up into small fragments. The flag itself was torn into tatters, and from its appearance, when found, would seem to indicate that the guilty party desired particularly to strip the stars from it, as not a vestige of any of them was left The act was a mean and despicable one, and proves conclusively that there is at least one Lincolnite in our midst, for no one, we feel sure, with one speck of Southern spirit could have been guilty of such an act—Lynchburgh Republican, January 18.

—The Burnside Expedition, which left Fortress Monroe on the 11th and 12th, arrived at Hatteras, N. C, having met with a severe storm and adverse winds.

—This day about four o’clock the steamer Connecticut spoke a small steamer off Juniper Inlet, on the Florida coast She promptly displayed a suspiciously new British ensign, which told the whole story—she had no name on her stern. She proved to be the Emma, (or, as some of the crew call her, the Onward, that being the name they shipped under,) that ran the blockade at Apalachicola in November last. She had been to Havana and taken a cargo of cotton and other stores, in value, according to the invoice found on board, twelve thousand dollars. The captain denied all knowledge of the intentions of the owners. He and the crew, he said, were shipped for St. John’s, N. B. Some correspondence was found, sufficient to condemn her; one paper was a telegraphic despatch stating the “blockade was open and the coast clear” at Apalachicola. This was at the time she slipped out. The Connecticut took possession of her as a prize.

—The Fortification Bill passed the United States House of Representatives to-day, appropriating an aggregate of five millions nine hundred and sixty thousand dollars. Among the appropriations were one hundred thousand dollars for Fort Knox, on Penobscot River; one hundred thousand dollars for fort on Hog Island, Port; land harbor; seventy-five thousand dollars for Fort Warren, and fifty thousand dollars for Fort Winthrop, Boston harbor; one hundred thousand dollars for the fort in New-Bedford harbor. The appropriation also included the following for the year 1862: fifty thousand dollars for Fort Knox; fifty thousand dollars for Hog Island Fort; fifty thousand dollars for Fort Winthrop and exterior batteries; fifty thousand dollars for fort at New-Bedford; fifty thousand dollars for Fort Adams, Newport.

—The Seventy – sixth Regiment New – York State Volunteers, under the command of Colonel Green, and two artillery companies, commanded by Captains von Puttakamer and Ellis, left Albany for the seat of war. They were reviewed in the Park by Governor Morgan, and addressed by Governor Pierce, of Ulstor, before their departure. They are a fine body of men, and number one thousand and three hundred strong.

—Navigation of the Mississippi River was entirely suspended at St. Louis in consequence of the gorging of the ice twenty miles below the city, extending to a point some distance from there, the ferry-boats not being able to run, and the ice not being sufficiently strong to bear heavy weights.

—A Flag of truce from Fortress Monroe to the rebels took to-day the following released prisoners: Colonel Pegram, Captain Sutton, Lieutenant A. C. Bell, Captain Tansill, Lieutenant John W. Pool, Lieutenant J. C. Lassell, Dr. R. W. Jeffreys and Captain L. J. Johnson.

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Fayetteville, Virginia, January 16, 1862.

Dear Uncle : — I am in receipt of your favor of New Year’s. So Allen got along. I hope he will not cause you more bother than he is worth. He was a good man here. I shall not be at all surprised if some day his owners undertake to recover him. You need not say this to him. His master still refuses to come in and take the oath of allegiance although an opportunity has been given him. He is a Rebel in the Rebel service.

We are doing well in all respects. I was at Camp Hayes, twenty-five miles further south, last week. They have pretty active times there with a few Rebel bushwhackers that infest the roads. Men are occasionally slightly wounded, but the shooting is from such great distances, and with common rifles, that no serious harm is done. The vast majority of the people are friendly.

As soon as four or five absent officers return, I shall ask for leave of absence. Say, in about three weeks.

Sincerely,

R.B. Hayes

S. Birchard.

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Fayetteville, January 16, 1862.

Dear Lucy: — Lieutenants Warren and Smith leave today. We are very well. Mud awful deep and streams overflowing.

I shall apply for leave of absence soon after Captains Sperry and Zimmerman return, provided Dr. Joe is here. Of course it would not do for two prominent officers of the same family to be absent at the same time. These leaves of absence are so abused, that in the absence of some great necessity, I would not leave my regiment unless plenty of officers remain. I shall leave about the last of the month, I think, unless Dr. Joe should be detained on your account.

I am writing in much haste with a host of citizens growling. Love to all.

Good-bye, dearest.

R. B. Hayes

Mrs. Hayes.

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Thursday, January 16, 1862. — Bright, warm weather. Colonel Scammon moved from Mrs. Manson’s house to Dr. Stites’. Lieutenants Warren and Smith start for Ohio. I send letters to Mother, Uncle, and Lucy. Warm and so muddy. The Kanawha up. Three steamboats at Loup Creek. Navigation good. Not having written “Thursday” above until this moment I thought it was Wednesday, and by a bet with Lieutenant Reichenbach lost a bottle of wine and the sardines. Present Dr. Jim W. [James Webb]; Lieutenants Reichenbach, Avery, and Kennedy. I fear Avery loves liquor “not wisely but too well.” Major Comly says he has captured two hundred and five law books.

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Adelia’s Diary.

We started the next week on Tuesday. I had to go to the military headquarters in Chicago to get our transportation. We stayed in St. Louis all night. We arrived in Victoria a few days before Christmas and met with a warm reception. The regiment had been sent to Victoria from Sulphur Springs to guard a number of bridges on the Iron Mountain Railroad, after they sent for us.

Mrs. Bartlett and I went out and bought chickens and potatoes for a Christmas dinner for Company K. The boys were very happy to be remembered. We were at a pretty fair hotel and had more comforts than we expected to have. Our babies were great pets. John Humphrey would often come and borrow my baby and take him out to the company. He told me that some of the men shed tears when they kissed him.

The regiment remained at Victoria until about Jan. 12. Our husbands went to Sulphur Springs with us, and we stayed there a couple of days. They were ordered to Cairo. We left them at Sulphur Springs. The regiment moved a few days after. The boat they were going on got on a sand bar, so they went by railroad.

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1862

Thursday Jan’y 16th

Streets all ice this morning and all the boys out Skateing before breakfast. In the office all day. Geo D Prentice of the Louisville Journal in the room today. Very plain appearing man, rather slovenly in Dress and looking anything but a Wit who keeps the whole country laughing.

Went down this evening to see a fine Bomb burst and burn on the ground south of the Presidents House. It is designed to set fire to buildings, woods &c fired from a Mortar. The Lincoln boys were here to dinner and brought a request from their Mother that our boys “Bud” & “Holly” would go home and sleep with them tonight and they are there. War matters appear to be coming to a crisis and it is almost certain that there will be an advance soon. Genl McClellan is again in the Saddle after his illness, and expectation is on “tiptoe” to hear from the Burnside Expedition & Grants down the Mississippi. Called upon Judge Mason today. Saw Mr [Forburk?] of Buffalo at Willards. A perfect jam there tonight.

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The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of Congress.

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Thursday, 16th—A squad of the boys went out scouting[1] and took one man a prisoner, besides bringing in nine mules and six hogs. They took the man to headquarters, turned the mules over to the regimental quartermaster, and the hogs we made use of as so much extra pork for the company.


[1]This was really a foraging expedition which at that time they spoke of as “scouting.”—Ed.

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JANUARY 16TH.—To-day, Mr. Benjamin, whom I met in the hall of the department, said, “I don’t grant any passports to leave the country, except to a few men on business for the government. I have ceased to grant any for some time past.” I merely remarked that I was glad to hear it.

Immediately on returning to my office I referred to my book, and counted the names of fifty persons to whom the Secretary had granted passports within thirty days; and these were not all agents of the government. Mr. Benjamin reminded me of Daniel Webster, when he used to make solemn declarations that his friends in office were likewise the partisans of President Tyler.

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Jan. 16. Three more boats ashore and leaking, one of them is the U. S. mail-boat Suwanee, from Fortress Monroe for Hilton Head. She ran in here this morning to leave mails and dispatches for this fleet, intending to sail this afternoon, but owing to the high winds and heavy sea, she parted her cable and drifted on an anchor fluke, breaking a hole in her bottom and sunk. She lies on the sand, with her deck about four feet out of water. It is said she can be pumped out and raised when it calms, of which time, however, there seems to be a very dim prospect. We have just heard from the old steamer Pocahontas. She went ashore below Hatteras light. She had our team horses aboard, and nearly all of them were lost. The men who were aboard of her got ashore and are now coming down the island. The schooner on which the signal corps were aboard has not been seen or heard from and there is much anxiety for her safety. We have kept alive on hardtack thus far, but on account of the storm no tug has been able to get alongside with rations, and we going it with half a ration of hardtack and coffee once a day. Five cents apiece are freely offered for hardtack, with no takers.

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January 16.—The Florida Legislature has passed an act forbidding the exportation from that State of any beef cattle, dried or pickled beef, hogs, pork, or bacon, corn, or corn meal, or salt, or provisions of any kind, whether salt or fresh. The act also forbids any person or corporation from buying these articles for purposes of speculation, and provides that all provisions of life shall be sold at a price not to exceed over thirty-three per cent over cost and charges.

—An imposing demonstration of the Germans of New-York, in favor of General Franz Sigel, was held in that city this evening. Resolutions expressive of the highest confidence in the General were unanimously adopted, and enthusiastic speeches were made by R. A. Witthaus, and other public personages.—(Doc. 15.)

—Two companies of cavalry made a reconnoissance from Lexington, Mo., and succeeded in capturing several notorious rebel desperadoes, together with a large lot of horses, mules, wagons, and commissary stores, which had been taken from Colonel Mulligan’s command, and a considerable quantity of boots and shoes, which the rebels took from the steamer Sunshine.

—Colonel Dietzler, in command at Lexington, ordered the arrest of a large number of wealthy and influential secessionists, whom he held responsible for the conduct of their hirelings in assassinating his men.

—In the House of Representatives at Washington, Mr. Dunn, from the Military Committer, reported a bill authorizing and directing the Secretary of War to furnish the prisoners of the United States, in the revolted States, with clothing and other necessaries of life, and for this purpose that he employ such agents as may be necessary. The bill was passed.

—The Richmond Examiner of this date has the following: “The report of the keeper of Holywood Cemetery that up to the 12th inst, five hundred and forty Confederate soldiers had been buried at that place, was one well calculated to induce reflections of an unpleasant nature. To account for this seeming excessive mortality among our brave defenders, we may state that, to within a very recent period, it had been the practice in the army of the Potomac to retain all sick and disabled soldiers in the scanty and ill provided hospitals at that place, till, from want of skill, the virulence of the disease, exposure, or some other cause, they were past the power of human skill. When the soldier was thus reduced he was despatched to Richmond. It may in truth be stated, that many who thus came were as good as dead on their arrival. The parties having charge of the hospital here have shown neither want of attention or skill. The soldiers, or many of them, when received, were past hope. No wonder that they died. The matter having attracted the attention of these in authority, steps have been taken tending to give the sick soldier a chance for his life, as we learn it is not contemplated in future to bundle them off from Manassas after the sands of life have so nearly run out as to leave the subject one chance in a hundred of surviving the journey to Richmond. A hospital, with all the necessary adjuncts, has been established at or near Manassas. In this all sick and disabled soldiers will be taken for treatment. When sufficiently convalescent to bear the fatigue of a journey to this place, and not before, he will be sent down in the sick train to be either cured, killed or discharged here. This is as it should be.”

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ANUARY 15TH.—I forgot to mention the fact that some weeks ago I received a work in manuscript from London, sent thither before the war, and brought by a bearer of dispatches from our Commissioner, Hon. Ambrose Dudley Mann, to whom I had written on the subject. I owe him a debt of gratitude for this kindness. When peace is restored, I shall have in readiness some contributions to the literature of the South, and my family, if I should not survive, may derive pecuniary benefit from them. I look for a long war, unless a Napoleon springs up among us, a thing not at all probable, for I believe there are those who are constantly on the watch for such dangerous characters, and they may possess the power to nip all embryo emperors in the bud.

Some of our functionaries are not justly entitled to the great positions they occupy. They attained them by a species of snap-judgment, from which there may be an appeal hereafter. It is very certain that many of our best men have no adequate positions, and revolutions are mutable things.

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Jan. 15. Rough weather still continues, and we are out of rations, subsisting entirely on hardtack and a short ration of that. Unless it calms down so a tug can get alongside, we shall be entirely out in a day or two more. Three more boats dragged their anchors and went ashore this morning, and other boats, with their flags union down, are calling for help. In fact, things are beginning to look gloomy, but amidst all the trouble and discouragements, Gen. Burnside is everywhere to be seen, flying about among the boats and vessels, encouraging his men and looking as cheerful as though everything was going to suit him. Today a rebel boat came down the sound to take a look at us. One of our boats went out to meet her, but the rebel, not caring for an interview, hauled off. The colonel, surgeon and one other man of the 9th New Jersey regiment were drowned today, by the upsetting of a small boat they were in. And so we go, trouble and dangers by sea, and I suppose there will be more by land, if we ever get there.

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January 15 — Wet and dreary, rained and sleeted all day. Renewed our march early this morning, forded Back Creek near Shanghai, crossed the North Mountain, and at noon we arrived at Martinsburg, wet, but glad to get into comfortable winter quarters once more. I never saw it sleet faster than it did to-day when we were ascending the North Mountain. The Bath trip is over. We were gone just fifteen days, and never fired a single shot.

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Wednesday Jan’y 15th

Nothing new in the City or from the army. More Cabinet changes talked of, and I think necessary. Julia had letter from Mrs Dr Barnes of the 27th Regt. She has been staying in Camp for the last ten weeks living in a tent. She also had a letter from Miss Mirrick of Lyons. It has been a cold unpleasant day, freezing until near night with a misty sleet falling all day. The ground is covered with snow, tonight it thaws and the snow & water on the ground render “rubbers” an absolute necessity. What the poor soldiers do it is hard to tell [in] this kind of weather. There is an immense amount of sickness in the City now among citizens. Small pox & Typhoid fever are both prevailing to a great extent. The mortality in the Military Hospitals is very great, forty or fifty pr day are carried off to their long homes. Bad management I fear there.

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The three diary manuscript volumes, Washington during the Civil War: The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft, 1861-1865, are available online at The Library of Congress.

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Eliza to Joe Howland.

Washington, ‘62.

We have made an engagement with Rev. Mr. Kennard, a young Baptist clergyman here, to visit the jail with him, where the poor contrabands are imprisoned on suspicion of being runaway slaves, or for debt. We have the Marshal’s permit, secured through a friend. . . . We made our visit; it is a wretched place, but the contrabands are better off than the convicts, though many of the poor creatures are almost naked. There are twenty men and boys and a few women, all runaway slaves. We gave them socks, shirts, drawers, etc. and shall go again. The women were very glad to get the sewing we had arranged for them.

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January 15. Wednesday. — A swashing rain is falling on top of the snow. What floods and what roads we shall have! No more movements in this quarter. Yesterday a party from Camp Hayes went out after forage to the home of a man named Shumate who had escaped from the guardhouse in Raleigh a few days ago. They stopped at his house. As one of the men were [was] leaving, he said he would take a chunk along to build a fire. Mrs. Shumate said, “You’ll find it warm enough before you get away.” The party were fired on by about thirty bushwhackers; two horses badly wounded. Four men had narrow escapes, several balls through clothing.

Two more contrabands yesterday. These runaways are bright fellows. As a body they are superior to the average of the uneducated white population of this State. More intelligent, I feel confident. What a good-for-nothing people the mass of these western Virginians are! Unenterprising, lazy, narrow, listless, and ignorant. Careless of consequences to the country if their own lives and property are safe. Slavery leaves one class, the wealthy, with leisure for cultivation. They are usually intelligent, well-bred, brave, and high-spirited. The rest are serfs.

Rained all day; snow gone. I discharged three suspicious persons heretofore arrested; all took the oath. Two I thought too old to do mischief, Thurman and Max; one I thought possibly honest and gave him the benefit of the possibility. He was from Logan County. Knew Laban T. Moore and my old friend John Bromley. John, he says, is “suspect” of Secesh.

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January 15.—This day, the steamers blockading the Rappahannock River, observed a schooner coming out of Thompson’s Creek, about a mile and a half from the mouth of the river, and standing up the river, as if to make away from the gunboats, keeping close to the shore. The Mystic was ordered to give chase, and succeeded in beaching the schooner, when the crew of the latter vessel deserted her, and made the shore in safety.

Two boats were lowered from the Mystic, and the tars took possession of the schooner, when they were fired on by a party of rebels, some five hundred yards distant, with canister, apparently from a howitzer. The balls passed over them, and no one was injured. The Mystic then opened fire, and shelled the surrounding woods, covering the retreat of the boats.

The gunboat Dawn then moved up to assist the Mystic, and fired four shells at different points, without any reply being made by the rebels. The Dawn then proceeded higher up the river, and closer into shore, when she was fired on from a rifled piece, placed some distance up the beach. No damage was done, however, and it was discovered that the rebels had a howitzer and a rifled cannon, which they were moving up or down as necessary, and that no battery was to be found.

The schooner was burned, and the gunboats returned to their station at the mouth of the river.

—A correspondence has passed between Price, commanding the rebels in Southern Missouri, and General Halleck, in command of the Department of the Missouri, in reference to the disposal of bridge-burners, and other rebels, captured by the Federal forces. Price states that he has information that certain citizens, soldiers, and bridge-burners, have been shot, which statement he can not believe. Nevertheless, he propounds certain questions to General Halleck, the first of which is, whether his men are to be treated as rebels or belligerents. General Halleck replies, that the bridge-burners have been court-martialed, and that “no order of yours (Price’s) can save from punishment spies, marauders, robbers, incendiaries, guerrilla bands, etc., who violate the laws of war.” But if any of Price’s men are captured in the garb of soldiers, they shall be treated as prisoners of war. He promises further communication with Price, when he shall receive instructions from his Government.

—Edwin M. Stanton’s nomination, as Secretary of War, was confirmed. Mr. Lincoln’s nomination of Mr. Stanton was received with great favor by the loyal Democratic press. They regarded it as an indication of a more cordial union of parties, in the great work of sustaining the Government

— The Second regiment of Ohio Cavalry, (Ben. Wade Brigade,) under the command of Colonel Doubleday, passed through Cincinnati, on their way to Leavenworth, Kansas. The regiment numbers one thousand two hundred and forty men, with one thousand one hundred and eighty-four horses. — Cincinnati Gazette, January 16.

—The following notice was published in Barren County, Ky., this day:

“All free white males of Barren County, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who will not volunteer in the Confederate service, who have a gun or guns, are required to deliver said gun or guns, within twenty days, in Glasgow, Ky., at the office of the undersigned, Inspector of Arms for Barren County. All persons, within the ages above named, who have taxable property to the value of five hundred dollars, and upwards, who have no gun, will attend at the office aforesaid, at the time aforesaid, and make oath to the same, and pay twenty dollars. For which amount, and all guns that are delivered, the said inspector will receipt; which receipt will be evidence of debt against said Confederate Government. All persons, failing to comply with this requisition, will subject themselves to a fine of fifty dollars, and imprisonment until said fine is paid. The undersigned is authorized to receive, accept and qualify, volunteers for the Confederate service, for the term of twelve months.

Z. McDaniel,

Inspector of Arms, Barren County.

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Tuesday, January 14, 1862. — My old veteran orderly, Gray, says it makes his flesh creep to see the way soldiers enter officers’ quarters, hats on, just as if they were in civil life! [The] Twenty-sixth Regiment left today. Three or four inches snow. Some winter!

Spent the afternoon looking over a trunk full of letters, deeds, documents, etc., belonging to General Alfred Beckley. They were buried in the graveyard near General Beckley’s at Raleigh. Some letters of moment showing the early and earnest part taken by Colonel Tompkins in the Rebellion. The general Union and conservative feeling of General Beckley shown in letters carefully preserved in his letter-book. Two letters to Major Anderson, full of patriotism, love of Union and of the Stars and Stripes — replies written, one the day after Major Anderson went into Sumter, the other much later. His, General Beckley’s, desire was really for the Union. He was of West Point education. Out of deference to popular sentiment he qualified his Unionism by saying, “Virginia would stay in the Union as long as she could consistently with honor.”

General Beckley’s note from “J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War,” informing him of his appointment as a cadet at West Point, and many other mementos, carefully preserved, were in the trunk. Title papers and evidence relating to a vast tract of land, formerly owned by Gideon Granger and now by Francis Granger and brother, were also in it. All except a few letters as to the Rebellion were undisturbed.

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